Though the colony was founded in 1634 by Cecillius Calvert, a Catholic, the turmoil between Protestants and Catholics escalated quickly. De Sousa then became a fur trader and sailor. In addition, controversy arose over his Roman Catholic practices. Accessed 6/6/19. "Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum." Their thanksgiving is now celebrated as Maryland Day, a state holiday. The countryâs first intercity telegraph line was constructed between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore in 1843â44. Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. Chestertown Tea Party Festival. In March 1655, Stone and a force of about 100 soldiers made an unsuccessful attempt to recapture the government in the Battle of the Severn. Accessed 6/6/19. The assembly then passed the Toleration Act into law on April 21, 1649. Library of Congress. "Thomas Stone." When Governor Leonard Calvert died, Maryland was still in turmoil. Accessed 6/6/19. Maryland State Archives. A small tribe located along the St. Mary's River in southern Maryland, the Yoacomaco maintained sovereignty while conducting trade with the Piscataway, the Powhatan Confederacy of Virginia, and European settlers. Independence Hall Association. To ensure political support for the charter in England, Cecil remained behind, naming his brother, Leonard, to lead the expedition and serve as the colony's first governor. As a result, increasing numbers of enslaved Africans were brought over to work Maryland's tobacco plantations. Ranked only 42nd in size, the state nonetheless comprises five distinct geographical areas that range from snowcapped mountains to sandy beaches. Click to learn more about Queen Henrietta Maria, namesake of Maryland. Social Classes in Maryland. In the colony it was important for members of different social classes to work together to make the colony … For example, in 1500, before European contact, the population of American Indians in the Chesapeake Bay area was thought to have been around 24,000 people. "Maryland at a Glance: Holidays: Maryland Day." Accessed 6/6/19. The charter granted him and his heirs territory in the upper Chesapeake, to be called Maryland in honor of the queen. "The Baltimore Basilica." Accessed 6/6/19. "The Maryland History and Culture Bibliography." In 1715 Maryland once again became a proprietary colony of the Calverts, who had converted to Protestantism. In 1861 federal troops occupied Baltimore and Annapolis, and martial law was imposed in this border state. "A Relation of the Successefull Beginning of the Lord Baltemore's Plantation in Mary-land." Prince George's County Historical Society. Maryland State Archives. "What's in a Name? "The Gunpowder Plot," by Bruce Robinson. Most of these American Indians were Woodland Indians who spoke an Algonquian language. Prince George's County Historical Society. The region has lowland and some marshes. He's considered the first free African-American to live in Maryland, earning his freedom in 1638. Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. The Maryland Colony was classified as one of the Southern Colonies. He was the first governor of the colonial Maryland. Pres. Maryland is often called "America in Miniature." Accessed 6/6/19. "Welcome to St. Mary's County." Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 6/6/19. Read more about George Calvert's Newfoundland colony, Avalon. In England, Henry VIII had broken away from the pope and Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. The colony In 1608 the English explorer Capt. "Maryland History Timeline." Accessed 6/6/19. It also ceded territory and advanced money for public buildings to help form the District of Columbia (1791). Lonang Institute. Accessed 6/6/19. In 1649 Governor Stone had invited Puritans from Virginia to settle in Maryland. In addition to Chase and Paca, Charles Carroll and Thomas Stone also represented Maryland at the Continental Congress and were signers of the Declaration of Independence. The Chesapeake Bay area is thought to have been first explored by Europeans in the early 1500s. Maryland State Archives. Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. "Fort Frederick State Park." University of Maryland Baltimore County. Accessed 6/6/19. Secretary of State, Statehouse, Annapolis, MD. To protest against another British tax, the ship Peggy Stewart with its cargo of tea was burned in the Annapolis harbor on Oct. 19, 1774. Accessed 6/6/19. For much of the 1500s and 1600s, and even into the 1800s, English Catholics faced persecution and worshipped underground. Maryland Humanities Council. They also sought to prevent him from obtaining a charter in any Virginian territory. "Hall of Fame Inductees." British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Around 1,500 years ago, they began growing squash, beans, and tobacco. Maryland State Archives. During the 1790s, Banneker played a leading role in planning Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. Chase served as a justice of the United States Supreme Court. Frederick county repudiated the Stamp Act in 1765, and in 1774, the year after the Boston Tea Party, a ship loaded with tea was burned at an Annapolis dock. A fort was built with several cannons mounted on top. The Chesapeake Bay is also in this region. As the number of indentured servants willing to come over to Maryland decreased, Maryland's economy grew dependent on slave labor. "The Colonial Kids' Guide to St. Mary's City." Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. As Maryland grew, it came into conflict with another growing colony on its northern border, Pennsylvania. Maryland State Archives. "British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1763â1766." "William Claiborne." Marylandâs dominant âcountry partyâ early resisted British efforts to make the colonies bear more of the costs of government. Accessed 6/6/19. Maryland's defining feature is … George Calvert's death prevented him from seeing the charter that was issued on June 20, 1632. Until England's Glorious Revolution of 1688, which brought the Protestants William and Mary to the throne, proprietary authority remained mostly unchallenged in Maryland. Sailing to Virginia without a charter, the Virginians refused to allow him to settle there because of his Catholicism. On March 25, 1634, the settlers rowed ashore to a small island, which they named St. Clement's, located in the mouth of the Potomac River (part of the Chesapeake Bay water basin). "Captain Henry Fleet." "St. Clements Island â Potomac River Museum." Maryland Public Television. With reference to the countryside around the bay, Smith exclaimed, âHeaven and earth seemed never to have agreed better to frame a place for manâs habitation.â. "Mathematician and Astronomer Benjamin Banneker Was Born November 9, 1731." They gave thanks and held what is considered to be the first Catholic Mass in the English colonies. The original 13 colonies were divided into three geographic areas consisting of the New England, Middle and Southern colonies. She was involved in over 100 court casesâand won them all. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. Maryland's first settlers avoided the mistakes of Virginia's first settlers, focusing on farming and trading instead of seeking gold. "African American History and Culture." "Was the Stamp Act Fair?" "Who Burned the Peggy Stewart?" One of the earliest laws of religious liberty, it was limited to Christians and repealed in 1692. Accessed 6/6/19. One free African-American who lived most of his life on his family farm in Baltimore County was Benjamin Banneker, born in 1731. St. Mary's County Government. "Narrative of a Voyage to Maryland." In 1617, he was knighted and then in 1619 named a secretary of state. The first people to settle in what is now Maryland arrived more than 10,000 years ago. Accessed 6/6/19. He repeats the false claim that Maryland's colonial legislators in 1649 did away with the concept of religious thought-crime. For those men who brought over fewer than five men, they would receive 100 acres plus another 100 for each man. Then they stopped for supplies in the West Indies before reaching Chesapeake Bay in early March 1634. Accessed 6/6/19. The Province of Maryland—also known as the Maryland Colony—was founded in 1632 as a safe haven for English Catholics fleeing anti-Catholic persecution in Europe. However, the colony of Maryland was not chartered until 1632 or formally settled until 1634. The first and major area, falling within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is nearly bisected by the Chesapeake Bay, dividing Maryland into the Eastern Shore and the Western Shore. However, the colony of Maryland was not chartered until 1632 or formally settled until 1634. Infoplease. There are beaches, mountains, plains, rivers and the gorgeous Chesapeake Bay for Marylanders to enjoy. Accessed 6/6/19. Though the temprature of Maryland swings from freezing, rainy winters to broiling summers on an annual basis- because it rests on both sides of Chesapeake bay (the largest in the U.S.), it is extremly fertile and excellent for growing crops. Settlements of the Chesapeake region grew slowly due to … University of Maryland Baltimore County. With Maryland's Assembly divided about equally between Protestants and Catholics, members rewrote some of the bill to put their stamp on it. Although her request was denied, Brent is often considered the first suffragette of America. Banneker became a self-taught scientist and published a very popular series of almanacs, for which he calculated the tides, sunrises, and sunsets, and correctly predicted an eclipse. Around the time de Sousa was voting in the assembly, Maryland was bringing over enslaved Africans to work its tobacco fields. Enoch Pratt Free Library. By then, most of the American Indians in the colony had been pushed out, killed in various conflicts, or died from diseases, such as smallpox. "Indigenous Peoples of the Chesapeake." Catholic Encyclopedia. "Margaret Brent: A Brief History." George Calvert did not become a Catholic until adulthood. Accessed 6/6/19. In addition they could incorporate towns, license trade, create courts of law, coin money, and even raise an army. Maryland the Seventh State. Landed gentry and residents of the Eastern Shore supported the secessionist South, while workingmen and western Marylanders stood up for the Union; a third faction favoured neutrality. Some of the key American Indian tribes of Maryland at the time of European settlement included the Piscataway, Yaocomaco (or Yeocomico), Shawneee, Accohannock, Nanticoke, and Susquehannock. Maryland Public Television. Claiborne seized Kent Island, while Ingle captured St. Mary's, forcing Governor Calvert to seek refuge in Virginia. Maryland State Archives. Learn more about the day the Mason-Dixon line was formed by clicking here. When civil war erupted in England in the 1640s between Catholics and Protestants, a violent period in Maryland's history also resulted. Ultimately, this religious and political struggle was resolved in London, but just for a time. Accessed 6/6/19. "County History." Archiving Early America. In 1828 workers began construction on the first U.S. passenger railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio, and on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, from Washington to Cumberland. Yale University, Avalon Project. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. Luther Martin distinguished himself as a representative of Maryland at the Constitutional Convention. When harassment on the high seas and other factors brought on the War of 1812, Baltimore clippers, sailing as privateers, dealt more than equal punishment to British ships. But Margaret Brent was an exceptional woman of these times. Maryland soon became one of the few predominantly Catholic regions among the English colonies in North America. Independence Hall Association. Calvert's charter, a proprietary charter, was strongly feudal in tone. Access Maryland almanac, furnishing more details on the state geography, geographical and land regions, climate and weather, elevation, land areas, bordering states, and other statistical data. When he visited his Newfoundland colony in 1627, however, he found the climate too harsh for any hopes of a major success in developing it. Roads and towns were few, and contact with the English-model manor houses was largely by water. DID YOU KNOW?Calvert left the title of the grant blank on the charter when he gave it to the king to sign. Maryland Historical Society. "Maryland." Chesapeake Bay Program. That same year, Calvert was given the title of Baron (Lord) Baltimore. Maryland Colony Facts The Maryland Colony was one of America's first original 13 colonies. Accessed 6/6/19. They took a southern route, surviving stormy weather and even being separated from each other. Library of Congress. The field hands included indentured labourers working off the terms of their passage and, after about 1639, African slaves. Maryland Public Television. Accessed 6/6/19. "Cecil (Cecilius) Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore." Accessed 6/6/19. Maryland Public Television. For a time in late 1776 and early 1777, the Declaration of Independence was kept in Baltimore for safekeeping. Although Claiborne kept up the struggle to retain Kent Island for many yearsâright up to his deathâit eventually became part of Maryland. "An Act Concerning Religion, April 21, 1649," by Edward C. Papenfuse, Jr. Accessed 6/6/19. Catholic Encyclopedia. In 1729, Baltimore Town was chartered, becoming a major port and shipbuilding center. Land Regions of Maryland----- There are three land regions in Maryland: Piedmont Plateau Most rivers in Maryland can be navigated up to the point where there are waterfalls. "The Burning of the Peggy Stewart." Thereafter, this line came to be regarded as the traditional division between the North and the South. The Church of England was made the official church of Maryland, replacing the 1649 Toleration Act. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. The original (male) settlers who paid their own wayâand that of five other menâwere promised a grant of 2,000 acres (those after 1635 would receive 1,000 acres). Accessed 6/6/19. It granted freedom of worship, though only within the bounds of Trinitarian Christianity. Kent Island Heritage Society. "The Algonquian-Speaking Indians of Maryland," by Wayne E. Clark. Maryland Public Television. "Harwood Mason-Dixon Line Marker Collection." 1634 - Leonard Calvert led English settlers to the new colony and founded the city of St. Mary's. He was born in 1606 and died in 1647. Maryland Public Television. The settlers also included about 20 gentlemen, some of their wives, and two Catholic priests. It connected the Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay. Library of Congress. The more-cautious constitution of 1867 remains in force. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. Back in 1631, William Claiborne of Virginia had created an independent trading station on Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay. During this war, Fort Cumberland served as George Washington's headquarters for a time and as an important British staging and supply point. "Charles County, Maryland." "Constitution of Maryland: Declaration of Rights." "African Americans in Maryland: Firsts and Facts." "The Colonial Period, 1607â1780." They are the Western Region, Capital Region, Central Region, Southern Region and the Eastern Shore Region. One of the many notable first settlers of Maryland was Mathias de Sousa, who came over on the Ark as an indentured servant to Father Andrew White, a Catholic priest. In 1694â1695, the colony's capital was moved from Catholic-dominated St. Mary's City to Protestant-dominated Anne Arundel Townâand renamed Annapolis after Princess Anne, Queen Mary's daughter. "St. Clements Island State Park." Western Maryland Railway Station (1913), Cumberland, Md., part of the state's Canal Place Heritage Area. The Lower Eastern Shore Heritage Council. Oliver Cromwell, who now ruled England, had little sympathy for the extreme actions of the Maryland Puritans. In time, American Indians in this area began staying in villages for most of the year or even year-round. The assembly, now controlled by Puritans, passed anti-Catholic legislation, as well as other laws restricting religious freedom. Accessed 6/6/19. "Bill of Rights." "Today in History: November 9." In Prince George's County, slaves made up over 50 percent of the county's population by the mid-1700s. Maryland ratified the U.S. Constitution on April 28, 1788, the seventh state to do so. Accessed 6/6/19. George Calvert | Artist: Daniel Mytens, c. 1625; Leonard Calvert | Artist: Florence Mackubin, 1914; Margaret Brent | Artist: Louis Glanzman, 1976; Cecilius Calvert | Artist: Florence Mackubin, c. 1910. "The Charter of Maryland: 1632." Some estimates suggest that less than 150 of the Piscataway population survived in Maryland by 1700. One well-known opponent of the Stamp Act was Danial Dulany of Annapolis. "Piscataway Indians: About Us." Accessed 6/6/19. When a mob threatened Stewart (and his family), he agreed to burn the teaâand his ship. Calvert started a small settlement of his own in Newfoundland, chartered under the name Avalon. The Middle Colonies included New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, and the Southern Colonies included Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. "William Paca." They also hoped to gain wealth from its development. However, Governor Calvert died soon after, in 1647. The boundary was named the Mason and Dixon Line for its surveyors. Accessed 6/6/19. The Maryland Colony The Maryland Colony was one of the original 13 colonies located on the Atlantic coast of North America. However, growing tobacco required more labor than could be supplied by indentured servants. In keeping with his father's wishes to promote religious toleration and help ensure the colony's financial success, Cecil invited both Catholics and Protestants to settle Maryland. Many were indentured servants. 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